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Saturday, April 18, 2015

Oracle Applications Architecture


When you use an E-business suite, you need to engineer it to suit your business requirements. In this topic, you learn about the principles that form the basis of the business architecture of oracle 11i/R12 E-Business Suite.
Here we will discuss  how to implement a fresh version of oracle application R12/11i in your organization. We‘ll do the implementation of below requirements.

1. The organization makes electronic gadgets – Mobile, Television, Refrigerator

2. The organization is present in 3 regions – Japan, UK and India

Let’s consider that we have installed a production instance of R12 in the server.
What next?

Oracle Applications Architecture
The Oracle Applications Architecture is a framework for multi-tiered, distributed computing that supports Oracle Applications products. In this model, various servers or services are distributed among three levels, or tiers.

A tier is a logical grouping of services, potentially spread across more than one physical machine. The three-tier architecture that comprises an Oracle E-Business Suite installation is made up of the database tier, which supports and manages the Oracle database; the application tier, which supports and manages the various Applications components, and is sometimes known as the middle tier; and the desktop tier, which provides the user interface via an add-on component to a standard web browser.

Centralizing the Oracle Applications software on the application tier eliminates the need to install and maintain application software on each desktop client PC, and also enables Oracle Applications to scale well with an increasing load. Extending this concept further, one of the key benefits of using the Shared Application Tier File System model (originally Shared APPL_TOP) is the need to maintain only a single copy of the relevant Applications code, instead of a copy for every application tier machine.
EBS R12 Architecture

The Desktop Tier
The client interface is provided through HTML for HTML-based applications, and via a Java applet in a Web browser for the traditional Forms-based applications.

R12 Database tier

The client interface is provided through HTML for HTML-based applications, and via a Java applet in a Web browser for the traditional Forms-based applications.
In Oracle Applications Release 12, each user logs in to Oracle Applications through the E-Business Suite Home Page on a desktop client web browser. 

The E-Business Suite Home Page provides a single point of access to HTML-based applications, Forms-based applications, and Business Intelligence applications.

Once logged in via the E-Business Suite Home Page, you need not sign on again to access other parts of the system. Oracle Applications does not prompt again for user name and password, even when you navigate to other tools and products.

Oracle Applications also retains preferences as you navigate through the system. For example, if you registered in the E-Business Suite Home Page that German is your preferred language, this preference carries over whether you access Forms-based or HTML-based applications.

The Forms client applet is a general-purpose presentation applet that supports all Oracle Applications Forms-based products, including those with customization and extensions. The Forms client applet is packaged as a collection of Java Archive (JAR) files. The JAR files contain all Java classes required to run the presentation layer of Oracle Applications forms.

The Application Tier
The application tier has a dual role: hosting the various servers and service groups that process the business logic, and managing communication between the desktop tier and the database tier. This tier is sometimes referred to as the middle tier.
Four servers or service groups comprise the basic application tier for Oracle Applications:
  • Web services
  • Forms services
  • Concurrent Processing server
  • Admin server
Note: In Release 12, the Web and Forms services are provided by  Oracle Application Server (OracleAS) 10g. They are no longer servers in the sense of being a single process, as was the case in previous Applications releases.  It is advisable to avoid using a mixture of different platforms on your application tier. This makes maintenance easier, since only one set of patches needs to be downloaded.

Applications File System
An Oracle Applications Release 12 system utilizes components from many Oracle products. These product files are stored below a number of key top-level directories on the database and application server machines.

Note: No Applications files are installed on desktop client machines, although JAR files and their supporting utilities are downloaded as required
Depending on how you chose to install Applications, these product directories may be located on a single machine (the simplest case) or on multiple machines (the most common type of deployment). Operating system environment settings indicate the location of the various files in the file systems of the database and application server machines.

This chapter discusses the association between these environment settings and the corresponding files and directories.

R12 File System
  1. The db/apps_st/data (DATA_TOP) directory is located on the database node machine, and contains the system table spaces, redo log files, data table spaces, index table spaces, and database files
  2. The db/tech_st/10.2.0 directory is located on the database node machine, and contains the ORACLE_HOME for the Oracle10g database
  3. The apps/apps_st/appl (APPL_TOP) directory contains the product directories and files for Oracle Applications
  4. The apps/apps_st/comn or (COMMON_TOP or COMN_TOP) directory contains directories and files used across products
  5. The apps/tech_st/10.1.2 directory contains the ORACLE_HOME used for the Applications technology stack tools components
  6. The apps/tech_st/10.1.3 directory contains the ORACLE_HOME used for the Applications technology stack Java components
Types of users

Forms-based users are involved in the transnational operations of an organization. These users are usually full-time users and require a robust interface with maximum features.
The desktop tier is only responsible for displaying forms. To forms-based users, the forms are displayed using java.

Therefore, the desktop tier needs java virtual machine (JVM) and java archive (JAR) files to operate in the forms-based architectural mode

Self-service users are infrequent users of oracle. They require a simple and quick interface. Typically, most users in an instance are self-service users

Business Intelligence (BI) users are mainly senior executives, who require a simple interface to reveal critical business information. Application designed for BI users provide a browser to eliminate the need for these users to learn a new system

Mobile Users are users whose jobs prevent them from using network-connected computers. By using a mobile interface, they can send or receive information at convenient locations. Usually, sales and inventory personnel belong to this class of users.

To self-service, business intelligence, and mobile users, forms are displayed using HTML or JavaScript. The browser is inherently capable of handling HTML and JavaScript. As a result, additional downloads are not required

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